Assessment search is a publicly available online service for private, personal, non-commercial use. It provides easy access to property information about properties across British Columbia with the exception of some First Nations’ properties.
Anyone can use the service for private, personal, non-commercial purposes. Businesses wishing to learn more about commercial access to assessment information should contact BC Assessment at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322 Ext. 00118).
BC Assessments strives to continually improve the customer experience. To make it easier and quicker to search for properties, BC Assessment has embedded the Assessment search function into our main website instead of having a separate website (formerly e-valueBC).
Yes. Anyone can use Assessment search for personal reasons as long as you have the property address, roll number, PID or plan number for the property you would like to view. You may also search for properties by navigating the map within the new version of the service.
Special agreements with each First Nation community must be negotiated by BC Assessment prior to including that specific community’s property information. Agreements do not exist for every First Nation community, and some First Nation communities with an agreement have not yet submitted their property information to BC Assessment.
We have tried to anticipate most questions and provide information within these FAQs. However, if your question is not answered here or through the videos, please click on the Contact us button within Assessment search to get in touch with BC Assessment. There is also phone support during regular business hours (Monday to Friday, 8:30 am to 4:30 pm pacific time) at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322).
For additional information, please click on the Contact us button within Assessment search to get in touch with a BC Assessment employee.
Assessment search stores your 5 most recent searches as cookies on your device. You can click on any of the listed items to go directly to that property without having to re-key the address. The 5 most recent searches will remain in this list unless you delete the cookies on your device.
Assessment search allows you to store up to 10 properties in your “Favourites” list. Wherever you see this symbol, , you can click on the symbol to add that property to your Favourites list. Use the Favourites list to instantly access up to 10 properties without having to key the address search. The Favourites list is stored as a cookie on your device and will retain these values until such time as you delete the cookies on your device.
Most taxable properties in B.C. are included with the exception of recreational properties such as parks and playing fields, and major industrial properties such as pulp mills and utilities.
Typically, only the property owner can request additional information and there may be a fee charged to access additional property information. Contact a BC Assessment representative at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322) for more details.
The drop-down menu on the left of the search bar defaults with the option to search by civic address. Two additional search options are available via the drop-down menu: roll number and plan. These three search options have been provided to make it easy to search for a property using commonly-known unique identifiers available on your assessment notice. Someone searching for a specific property needs to have only one of these three identifiers in order to locate the property.
The search bar on the Assessment search page offers an auto-complete feature that tries to predict your request as you key in the order that the information is typed. For example, typing “123 Queen” will result in the first 10 options (if available) beginning with that exact same sequence of characters. Up to ten (10) predicted options will be presented below the search bar and if the one you desire is displayed, scroll down to it and click the left button of your mouse to complete the search with this information. If you do not see your desired option in the 10 predicted options, continue to key your request and note that the presented options will update. The more information you key in, the greater the likelihood that your predicted options will be more accurate. When the property you are looking for is displayed in the drop-down list, select it (mouse left click) and the service will search for that property.
All of the required search information is found on the assessment notice. (i.e. address, roll number, PID or plan). As you type in the search bar, the auto-complete suggestions will show under the bar and you can select (left mouse click) the correct one from that list at any point.
For Address: Follow the suggested format provided in the search bar for optimal results. Type in the address given at the bottom of the assessment notice. Make sure to include special characters (i.e. “-“) and spaces. If the address has a unit # but there is no “-“between it and the street number, type it in the search bar without a “-“.
In the example below you would type: 1234 Anywhere Street
For Roll Number: The roll number is usually unique for each property, but there are still many instances where this is not true. To ensure that you get the correct property for the roll number you have, enter the jurisdiction number located above the roll number at the top right of the assessment notice first, and then the roll number. Do not include the “- City/Town name” shown on the notice. The jurisdiction number and roll number should be typed in the search bar in the following format:
In the example below you would type: 308 as jurisdiction number and 519500059 as roll number.
For Plan: The plan number is not a unique identifier for a property. As a result you must type in a few other property identifiers that in combination will retrieve the property you are looking for. The full set of property identifiers are the plan number, lot number, jurisdiction number (without the city or town part), and the roll number. These identifiers can be found on the property assessment notice in two places: the box at the top right (jurisdiction and roll) and the box near the top left on the notice (lot number, plan number). Please review the picture below. The numbers must be typed in the search bar in the following format, including special characters and spaces. The auto-complete will make suggestions below the search bar and you can select the correct one as soon as it is displayed in the list.
In the example below you would type: VIP4888 as Plan and 5 as Lot
For PID: A parcel Identifier, or PID, is located on the Property assessment notice in the shaded box that is second-from-the-top (the one that contains the street address). See the image below for the location of your PID on your assessment notice. When searching by PID, dashes(-) are not required.
In the example below you would type: 012345678
Depending on the information being keyed into the search bar, the auto-complete may not identify 10 possible options. For example, typing “1738 k” will result in fewer than 10 options displayed. Another possible reason for fewer options displaying may be the size of the display on the device being used. Usually this can be adjusted by the ‘zoom’ control. A setting of 75% may make it easier to view the 10 possible options. Another approach instead of adjusting the zoom setting is to use the “middle” or “scroll” wheel on your mouse to move the screen display up and down without changing any information on the screen.
If no auto-complete options are displaying below the search bar this indicates that:
Cutting and pasting information can be quicker and more accurate than rekeying information. Sometimes cutting and pasting information into the search bar results in the auto-complete to stop functioning. If this occurs, backspace one or two characters and retype them manually to restart the auto-complete functionality.
Search for a strata building the same as you search any address. When the address search determines that a strata building is being searched on, it displays a subset of the units and indicates on the first line or two, the option to list all of the strata units. If the unit you are looking for is not on the initial list, simply click on the line with the wording “(select to see all units…) and this will take you to a new page with the full list of strata units within the building. From this list, select on the individual unit of interest.
The search bar looks up an address in the data available to it as you type. You cannot paste in the full address because the search needs to compare the address in the search bar to BC Assessment’s address records one character at a time. Once it has found records that may match, you must select the correct address (click it) from the dropdown search results.
You can either enter the address manually and the search results will start to show under the search bar, or you can copy and paste an address and delete characters from the right side of the address towards the start of the address until a dropdown option appears.
That error indicates that it has been a while since you have used the search and it has de-activated. Click “OK” and refresh the web page by clicking the Refresh or Reload icon next to the browser’s address bar.
There are over 150 different street types used. The list below shows the spelling within the service of some of the most common street types.
For additional information, please click on the Contact us button within Assessment search to get in touch with a BC Assessment employee.
The following list represents all property information displayed (when available and applicable) on Assessment search in the property detail page:Property Information
Updating property images is a significant undertaking for such a geographically large province as British Columbia. While we strive to have property photos as current as possible, not every property can be updated frequently due to geographical and accessibility constraints.
Properties under construction (not renovations) will not show updated information until construction has been completed.
Only sales over the last 3 years are shown in Sales History.
As a property owner in British Columbia, real estate is most likely your biggest asset. Knowing that your property’s assessed value is an accurate reflection of actual value is key in making fully informed property related decisions. The value of your property may have changed if you have:
Each year, BC Assessment provides local governments and other taxing authorities with accurate and independent assessment information. That information is then used to determine funding for important services used every day in communities all over British Columbia. BC Assessment cannot predict whether your taxes will change based on changes to your property details. Properties with assessment increases above the average within their local government or taxing authority may notice a proportionately higher percent change in property taxes. Those with changes below the average may see a lower than average change.
Ultimately, the tax rate – which determines the amount of taxes you pay – is set by your local government or taxing authority. Questions about taxation should be directed to your local government or taxing authority.
In an effort to ensure the information BC Assessment uses to set assessed values is as accurate as possible, a request to update property details is often included with Property Assessment Notices. By following the steps outlined on that request, you are helping to ensure your assessment is accurate.
Each year selected neighbourhoods are asked to partner with us in validating their property details. The methods used to validate property details include: a request sent through the mail, a request included with Property Assessment Notices, or a visit by a BC Assessment appraiser. Additionally, any homeowner who wishes to confirm or correct their property details published on Assessment search is encouraged to do so following the steps outlined in the "How do I update my property details" FAQ below.
In addition to those described above, BC Assessment collects property details through home inspections, municipal permit information, building plans, satellite and street front imagery, orthographic imagery and a variety of other methods.
Yes - Sections 15 and 16 of the Assessment Act permit BC Assessment to ask property owners for information to ensure fair and equitable assessments.
Note: If you wish to search by roll number, click on the downward arrow to the right of civic address and select roll number from the drop down menu. The Roll Number can be found on your Property Assessment Notice as shown below.
The personal information on these forms is collected for the purpose of administering the Assessment Act , under the authority of both the Assessment Act and the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act . An appraiser may need to contact you to clarify the information you have provided in order to ensure that your assessed value and property classification are correct.
Submitting a correction to your property details is not the same as appealing your assessed value. If you believe that an error in your property details has resulted in an incorrect assessed value, please consider the steps for appealing your assessment. Appeals can only be filed between January 1st and January 31st.
Please complete our Change of Address Notification form. BC Assessment will make the change upon confirming you are the legal owner of the property.
The property details displayed on Assessment search are updated on January 1st, before Property Assessment Notices are sent out, and again in early April. Any updates submitted between April and November will be reflected in Assessment search in the January update. It is important to note that all submissions will be reviewed by BC Assessment. If the submission indicates substantial differences, a BC Assessment employee will contact you to discuss the details of your submission.
The current online property details submission process does not allow for attachments, such as photos. If the photo of your property as displayed on Assessment search is incorrect contact BC Assessment at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322) to report the error.
All submissions will be reviewed by BC Assessment. If the submission indicates substantial differences that could change the assessed value of your property, a BC Assessment employee will contact you to discuss the details of your submission
Please use our Contact us link or call 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322) to reach a BC Assessment employee for assistance regarding your property details, or answers to any other questions you may have.
Assessments are updated annually and represent the property value as of July 1st of the prior assessment year. For example, if you are using the Assessment search service in the year 2018, the assessment information is current as of July 1, 2017. A second, smaller update occurs in April of each year to reflect the decisions of the Property Assessment Review Panels (PARP).
The land values for strata properties are calculated as the residual value that is left after all other valuation factors are taken into account. Total market value of the unit minus the depreciated building value equals the land value. For more information, please see the BC Assessment Fact Sheet on Valuation of Residential Strata Properties .
In some cases, property details may not be available.
The Assessment Act permits BC Assessment to provide a street front image for each property.
There are two kinds of property images displayed in Assessment search: BC Assessment Street Front images and Google StreetView images.
Property owners do not have the authority to request that their BC Assessment Street Front property image be removed from the Assessment search service. BC Assessment images obtained through the Street Front program will remain on the service as per our policy, unless a specific problem with the image is identified (for example a licence plate is readable). Each image obtained through the Street Front program has been confirmed to comply with the province of BC’s privacy legislation.
As stated in the question above, the Assessment Act permits BC Assessment to provide a street front image for each property.
Google provides a process that enables property owners to request that parts of or all of the Google StreetView image of their property (identified by the Google watermark on the image) will be blurred. The Google process can be accessed here . This would result in blurring the image shown in Assessment search. If the property owner is not satisfied with the Google blurring process, the property owner can request the removal of the Google StreetView image from the Assessment search service by BC Assessment. This action to remove an image from Assessment search does not automatically remove the image from Google. The removal of an image from the Google system is beyond the authority of BC Assessment.
For more information on how to report a problem with a property image in Assessment search, please click the “Report a Problem” link at the bottom of the property image or this information can be accessed here.
Nearly 80% of properties include images. Images enhance the information available through the Assessment search service. Some of the images have been licensed from Google. These images include a Google watermark and therefore are readily identifiable as the source provider. Other images have been obtained as BC Assessment gradually visits every part of the province to capture the street front image of each property.
In some cases, there is no image because neither Google nor BC Assessment has taken a street front image of the property or the image may not be available.
There are two sources for the images in Assessment search. When BC Assessment strives to take photos that show the front of the property. When the image is licensed from Google, there are instances when the image is something other than the front of the property, for example, an image taken from the back alley. This happens infrequently and is limited to properties that have back alleys, are corner lots, or the lots are unusually large or irregularly shaped. BC Assessment has made every reasonable attempt to eliminate any image that is not from the front of the property.
This is part of the BCA Street Front program that results in updating or adding the street front image of every property in the province. The vehicle is clearly marked with the BC Assessment logo to help assure observers that the photos are being shot for a valid and safe purpose. The driver of the vehicle may also hand out a written notice if anyone questions the process. This notice will include BC Assessment contact information in order to respond to any questions an observer may still have.
No, property owners do not have the authority to request that their BC Assessment information be removed from the Assessment search service.
Google’s street front images that are used in the Assessment search application are the same images freely and publically available through Google Maps StreetView service .
No. Google requires that the person with the concern about the image contact them directly. However, if you encounter service issues with Google, BC Assessment would like to hear about your concerns so they can notify Google.
For additional information, please click on the Contact us button within Assessment search to get in touch with a BC Assessment employee.
The map allows you to see the selected property geographically. Using the map, you can get information about all the properties around the selected property. By zooming out on the map you can see more of the area surrounding the selected property By zooming out and dragging the map in any direction, you can see all areas of the province. For example, if you searched a property in Victoria, you could zoom out (the “-“ button on the top left of the map or scroll backwards on the mouse) to see the entire region around Victoria. By dragging the map down, you would start to see areas North of Victoria on Vancouver Island. By dragging the map to the left, you would see areas on the southern mainland of BC or the Gulf Islands. By dragging the map downwards you could move the map view to Prince George. At any point you could zoom in (the “+” button on the map or scroll forward with the mouse), to any city, town or property. Click the property and the property value summary will show in a pop-up on the map.
The interactive map can be increased or decreased in size using either the +/- buttons (plus and minus buttons) on your keyboard or by using the scroll wheel on your mouse when you are pointing at the map. The map can be shifted up, down, left and right by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the map in the desired direction. To select and highlight a property on the map, left click the desired property. Neighbouring properties that are clicked will be highlighted in a different color.
The property address, PID, plan number or roll number can be keyed into the search bar. Once the property is found, the page will load and the map will zoom to the extent of your desired property.
Diamond shapes on the map represent properties whose exact lot dimensions have not been digitally plotted on the map. The Diamonds are placeholders for these properties to represent their existence and general geographic location. Diamonds can represent, but are not limited to, leases, licenses, permits and air space parcels.
On the map, click the property that your unit is in or a neighbouring property. The pop-up will allow you to scroll through the unit numbers for the apartment/condominium/townhouse properties that are at the same address. Click on one of the properties in the pop-up, and the summary assessment information will be displayed for that unit. Within the summary assessment information section, you can click the “details” link to load the page displaying in-depth property information for that unit.
All property values are included in Assessment search (with the exception of some First Nations properties). However, if your rental property is a multi-unit building owned by a single company there is no assessed value for the individual units.
The spatial mapping data in Assessment search has different structures and with some, a group of individual properties are stored together. These properties can be single family homes, strata complexes and can be situated on adjacent streets. Each address in the drop-down box is a unique property in Assessment search that can be selected by left clicking the address.
The map gets crowded when panned out if there are addresses on all the neighbouring properties and it becomes difficult to read. To get an address of a neighbouring property, click on the property and the address will be in the pop-up on the map.
The image for a multi-unit strata property will always be the same for every unit since the photo was taken from the road at the street address. The details do change for each unit that you click in the map drop-down. When it looks like it just goes to the top of the page, it actually reloads with the property data for the unit number you clicked. The unit number in the address at the top of the page will be different, although with some multi-unit strata properties, the details between different units may be the same or almost the same.
Where BC Assessment does not have an individual property’s latitude/longitude, the map defaults to a view of BC.
The map on Assessment search is developed and maintained by ESRI Canada. BC Assessment does not have control over ESRI’s mapping features. This includes streets that are labelled incorrectly.
If you have feedback to provide to ESRI Canada regarding a labelling error, please navigate to their feedback website here (select “Feedback for Street Map and World Street Map”).
Neighbouring properties are nearby properties on your street to provide a quick overview of neighbouring assessments. Only properties on your street are displayed. However, you can display more properties by clicking on the map with the left mouse button, holding it down and dragging it in the desired direction.
In some cases, neighbouring property information may not be available.
Sample sold properties are properties that have certain key characteristics in common to the property you are analyzing in Assessment search and have sold in the last calendar year. These recently sold properties give an indication of what the market value is of properties similar to the one you are reviewing within Assessment search. If a property has not been sold in the previous calendar year, it will not show up in this list. Sale prices on sample sold properties may need to be adjusted to reflect changing market conditions between the sales date and the BC Assessment valuation date of July 1. For example, if a market is experiencing increases in value of 1% per month, a sale that occurred on December 1 would need to be adjusted 5% downwards to account for the change in market conditions from July 1 to December 1.
Note that these sample sold properties are provided for information and as examples only. In assessing a particular property, BC Assessment takes into consideration many factors, and the sample sold properties are not necessarily the same that BC Assessment would use as "comparables", for example in an appeal.
Sales are updated on or around the 17th of every month with sales that were processed by BC Assessment between the 16th of the previous month to the 15th of the current month.
Each month BC Assessment updates the sales available on the "Sample Sold Properties" tab. If the sale occurred very recently, the sale might not have yet been verified by BC Assessment. If the sale you saw yesterday is now no longer available to view, that could be because BC Assessment attempted to verify the sale and determined it was a non-arms length transaction and should not be included in our analysis nor be included in the list of sample sold properties.
BC Assessment reviews all transactions from the Land Title and Survey Authority (LTSA) to determine if they were arms-length transactions and if they should be included in our sales analysis. Some of the factors considered by BC Assessment when verifying sales include, but are not limited to:
Click the print button on the right side of the screen
This will produce a “printer-friendly” version of the property detail page only. It includes the summary property information and the detail information shown when the “+ Show property details and recent sales history” is clicked to expand the box under the property image. The print function will be improved in a future release to include the ability to print the properties displayed in the Neighbouring Properties and Sample Sold Properties tabs.Use your browser’s print function
Each browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Chrome, etc.) and browser version will offer the print option from the browser menu bar, but the capabilities of the print may differ between browser types and versions. In supported browser versions (see Other Questions), you can click on the Neighbouring Properties and/or Sample Sold Properties tabs. Once the properties are displayed on the screen from each of these tabs, you can use the browser print function to print the displayed properties. However, testing has shown that the print results from browser print functions can be missing information. The Assessment search service has no control over the capabilities of browser print functions.
This feature will be added to the Assessment search service in a future release. Some browsers will enable a PDF to be created through the “Print” selection under the File menu if either the operating system includes a PDF writer or you have a PDF writer software installed. For Windows, two popular free PDF creators are PDFCreator and CutePDF.
In some cases, sample sold property information may not be available.
Roll number (#) is usually a unique identifier for each property in British Columbia. In a few cases the roll # is duplicated on more than one property, but additional identifiers such as plan # ensure that each property is distinguished from any other property in the province. The roll # can be found on the Property Assessment Notice in the shaded box in the upper right hand corner. When entering this number into the search bar the spaces should be eliminated ( See the image below for the location of your roll# (highlighted in red) towards the top of your assessment notice).
A Parcel Identifier, or PID, is a nine-digit number that uniquely identifies a parcel in the land title register of BC. The Land Title Office assigns PID numbers to parcels for which a title is being entered in the land title register as a registered title. The PID is located on the Property Assessment Notice in the shaded box that is second-from-the-top (the one that contains the street address). See the image below for the location of your PID on your assessment notice. When searching by PID, dashes (-) are not required.
A plan is a legal, surveyed piece of land in British Columbia. The plan number may be shared by multiple properties in a development, so the plan number is not always unique to each property. When searching by plan in Assessment search other identifiers like jurisdiction and lot number will be required. The plan number (#) is located on the Property Assessment Notice in the shaded box that is second-from-the-top (the one that contains the street address). The plan # is in the second line of information. (See the image below for the location of your plan# on your assessment notice).
The Description field in Assessment search describes the primary structure on the property. The description defines the type of building (i.e. strata apartment, retail store, house, etc.) and often provides additional descriptive information.
In the case of houses, it includes the number of storeys and a quality rating to assist you in finding appropriate comparable properties. These are quite generic descriptions that reflect construction quality and design. The particular characteristics used to categorize a dwelling as, “basic, standard, semi custom and custom” will depend on the era when it was built. Generally though, they are rated in the following order from lowest to highest quality:
No. Your property’s tax rate is established by your local government or taxing authority. Please refer to your property tax bill to identify the contact information for your local government or taxing authority. The graphic below, shown on the second page of your assessment notice, highlights the process to determine taxes:
Sometimes you will find a property that is marked with an where the value appears to be lower than market value. The following explains why a property would be assessed below market value.Residential (Class 1)
Under Section 19(8) of the Assessment Act certain eligible residential property is assessed based on the current actual use of the property, not taking into consideration any other use to which the land or improvements could be put. This results in a lower assessed value than the property would command in the market. For more information about Section 19(8) and eligibility requirements, refer to Section 19(8) of the Assessment Act: Special assessments for certain long term residents Fact Sheet.Farm (Class 09)
Farm Properties are assessed utilizing regulated rates. These rates are found in the Land Values for Farm Land Regulation. If the land meets the requirements for farm classification, the regulated rates are applied to value the land. For more information about farm classification and eligibility requirements please read our Farm Land Fact Sheet.Utilities (Class 2)
Linear Utility properties as described in Section 21 of the Assessment Act are valued using regulated rates. These properties are used or held for the purposes of the business of transportation by railway; transportation, transmission or distribution by pipeline; telecommunication; generation, transmission or distribution of electricity; or transmission and distribution of closed circuit television. For more information please read our Regulated Rates for Utility Properties Fact Sheet.Major Industrial Properties (Class 4)
Major Industrial Properties (MIP) includes land and improvements (buildings and structures) valued utilizing a prescribed manual. These properties include, but are not limited to, mines, sawmills, pulp mills, and purpose built manufacturing plants. For more information, refer to Section 20 of the Assessment Act.Managed Forest Land (Class 7)
Managed Forest Land is assessed utilizing regulated rates for land used for the growing and harvesting of trees as well as the value of any cut timber. The value of the cut timber harvested in any year is added two years later to the property’s assessed value. The Managed Forest Land and Cut Timber Values Regulation (BC Reg. 90/2000) contains the rate schedules for land and timber.
Municipalities will typically inform BC Assessment when issuing a building permit. BC Assessment will review this information and determine if an assessment requires updating. In some cases during this determination process, BC Assessment may visit the property site.
There is an appeal process that can be initiated by the property owner or a third party. Information regarding the appeal process is available here. Appeals must be filed between January 1st and January 31st.
Contact BC Assessment at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322) to request a new copy. This service is delivered via email or post, at no cost. Proof of ownership is required.
BC Assessment is continually looking for ways to improve your experience on Assessment search (Assessment search is a free online service that enables you to check the fairness of your assessed value with similar properties at any time during the year.) Your feedback will be used to help ensure we provide you with a quality tool that is accessible and easy to use.
BC Assessment has partnered with Insights West , a local marketing research company, to conduct this research. No identifying information will be provided from Insights West to BC Assessment.
No. The only qualification is that you have visited our Assessment search website and you are a resident of Canada.
Yes, all adults 18 years of age and older who have visited our Assessment search website and are a resident of Canada are welcome to participate. Your feedback is valuable to us, and we appreciate your responses.
All data gathered in this survey are confidential. The data will be presented to BC Assessment in aggregate form only.
There are no plans to share the results of the survey publically. However, the results of this survey will be used to improve your user experience.
Please contact email@example.com for questions regarding the survey link. Questions about the Assessment search website itself can be asked by clicking the Contact us button at the top right of the screen or call us at 1-866-valueBC (1-866-825-8322).
No, we ask you take the survey only once.
To provide additional feedback, please click on the Contact us button at the top right of the screen.
In order to enhance the security of BC Assessment data, you may be asked to verify you are a person and not a robot using the Google Captcha service. You may be asked to identify, from a series of images, which images pertain to the question being asked. In the example below, you are requested to click on all the images that contain a billboard. If you do not click all images that have a billboard, or click on an image without a billboard, you will not be allowed to proceed with your search.
For those users that are having trouble seeing the images due to being on a mobile device, or are visually impaired, you can click on the “Get an audio challenge” icon, then the following pop up is displayed.
The following browsers are supported:
Yes, Assessment search has been tested on Apple, Android and Windows tablet devices. It also works well on newer Apple, Android and Blackberry Smartphones, although the small size of the phones may constrain the use of Assessment search on these devices.